Sexual reproduction futile adaption to environment
Please take this quick survey to tell us about what happens after you publish a paper. Springer Science Reviews. Competition for mates is often intense and the ability of an individual to attract a mate is highly dependent on the traits that enable an animal to compete and communicate effectively with conspecifics. Signalling individuals must also assess their environment in order to produce a suitable signal, and possess the apparatus required to produce this signal.
Asexual reproduction  is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes , and almost never changes the number of chromosomes. Asexual reproduction is the primary form of reproduction for single-celled organisms such as archaea and bacteria. Many plants and fungi sometimes reproduce asexually. Some asexual cells die when they are very young. While all prokaryotes reproduce without the formation and fusion of gametes, mechanisms for lateral gene transfer such as conjugation , transformation and transduction can be likened to sexual reproduction in the sense of genetic recombination in meiosis. It is not entirely understood why the ability to reproduce sexually is so common among them. Current hypotheses  suggest that asexual reproduction may have short term benefits when rapid population growth is important or in stable environments, while sexual reproduction offers a net advantage by allowing more rapid generation of genetic diversity, allowing adaptation to changing environments.
There is no question that sexual reproduction has its advantages. The controversy is over how natural selection could possibly have caused sexual reproduction to arise. Without abiogenesis, the theory of evolution is literally dead on arrival. If there is no living thing to evolve, there can be no evolution. Just for the sake of discussion, we are willing to grant them their premise that life began through some unknown, undirected natural process without so much as a laboratory full of equipment, an intelligent designer and his deformed assistant , and a freshly assembled composite corpse.
Williams has put forward a general argument to cast doubt upon the importance of group selection in the maintenance of sex. It is his balance argument. Some species, such as strawberry plants pictured opposite , aphids, sponges, rotifers, and water fleas Cladocera , can reproduce both sexually or asexually according to the conditions.
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